Russia can now designate independent journalists and bloggers as foreign agents after amending a controversial law.
The foreign agent label already applies to certain media organisations and non-governmental organisation which engage in politics and receive funding from abroad.
The amended law has been condemned by the EU, Amnesty International and the OSCE international security body.
Foreign agent was a Soviet-era term of abuse for political dissidents.
President Vladimir Putin signed the amended foreign agent media law on Monday.
Russia says the original media bill, introduced in 2017, was its response to a US requirement for Kremlin-backed broadcaster RT to register as a foreign agent in the US.