The Indian government has introduced a bill guaranteeing a third of seats for women in the lower house of parliament and state assemblies.
The contentious bill, first proposed in 1996, has been pending for decades amid opposition from some political parties.
Its revival is expected to boost the governing party's fortunes in the general elections next May.
The bill was tabled at the new Indian parliament's first session and is still some way from becoming law.
It would require the approval of both houses of parliament and a majority of state legislatures, as well as the Indian president's signature.
Reported plans to increase the overall number of constituencies could further complicate its implementation.